The oil, alkali and some auxiliary materials used in the soap are basically the same as soap, but the oil needs to be refined, decolorized and degassed before it can be used to make soap. In addition, the oil used in soap is limited to natural oil such as beef and mutton oil, coconut oil, palm oil, lard, etc. besides natural oil, fat soap can also be made of synthetic fatty acids. The main raw materials for making soap are spices and pigments.
Spices: there are many spices in soap, generally divided into two categories: natural and artificial spices, natural spices are divided into animal spices and plant spices, and artificial spices are divided into monomer spices and blending spices according to the source, composition and preparation method. This is to introduce:
- Animal flavor: there are few kinds of animal flavor, only musk, civet, beaver and ambergris. Ambergris is the pathological secretion of whales, and the rest is the secretion of mammalian gonads. These fragrances have a very strong function of fixing the fragrance, which is not easy to dissipate and volatilize. However, they are rare in production and high in price. Among them, musk is the most widely used, which is a special product of Tibet made in China, accounting for about 80% of the world’s output.
- Plant perfume: plant perfume is extracted from flowers, leaves, branches or fruits of aromatic plants. Most of them are volatile oil, also known as a natural essential oil (or natural essential oil). For example, vegetable oil and rose oil are respectively extracted from jasmine and rose; clove oil and anise oil are respectively extracted from lemon oil and orange oil from fruit peel. Some trunks contain aromatic mucus, which is obtained by cutting fat.
There are many kinds of plant flavors, and the pear flavor is different in intensity, volatility, and irritancy. These perfumes can be used as raw materials for free perfumes as well as direct perfumes.
- Monomer flavor: monomer flavor is an aromatic flavor extracted from the natural flavor and other chemical products by physical and chemical methods, which only contains a single compound. According to the different raw materials, they are divided into free flavor and mixed flavor.
(1) the free flavor is a pure flavor separated from nature. Generally speaking, natural ingredients are not a single aromatic compound in terms of composition. They are all composed of a variety of aromatic ingredients. If leaf oil is composed of geraniol and vanilla. The perfume with one component separated from nature by the physical and chemical methods is called monomer perfume.
(2) synthetic perfume is a kind of perfume which is synthesized by chemical methods with the fractionation products of coal tar, free perfume, and other chemical raw materials. At present, many natural monomers can be synthesized by artificial methods, and there are hundreds of varieties.
4, blending spices: Blended flavors, commonly referred to as essence or mixed spices, is made from several to dozens of spices. The spices used in various products are flavoring, such as soap flavors, cosmetics, flavors, tobacco flavors, etc.
Soap flavor requires strong fragrance, strong flavor, good chemical stability, and no volatilization. It is basically non-irritating and has strong bactericidal power.
In order to make blending flavors with a certain flavor and long-lasting, they are divided into three types according to their functions, namely the main spices (the essential spices which form a certain flavor, such as sandalwood soap essence, Sandalwood oil), auxiliary perfume (to make up for the shortage of the main spices, but not to change the flavor of the main spices), and the setting agents (to make the flavors of all flavors volatile and uniform. Pigment: it is used to decorate the color of soap to increase its beauty. The commonly used pigments in soap include acid soap yellow, phthalein pigment, base rose essence, etc. The requirements for the pigment are light and alkali resistance, no skin irritation, no toxic substances, and no fabric coloring when washing.
Medicament: medicament is the disinfectant added by medicated soap and bath soap. Boric acid is added to bath soap or refined tea, phenol (carbolic acid) or cresol (oxalic acid) are often added to medicine soap, as well as related drugs for treating various skin diseases.